Collagen is the most abundant protein in humans. Relatively one third of the protein found in the body is collagen. It is the main constituent of bones, muscles, tendons and skin, and is also present in teeth and blood vessels. More than 16 types of collagen have been identified in humans. Type I collagen, which represents about 90% of collagen in the body, serves as a main structural unit of skin, bones, tendons, fibrous cartilage and teeth. The production of collagen gradually declines with age. However, Vitamin C supports normal collagen formation.
Vitamin C’s historical use is extensive. Indigenous Canadians used a drink created from tree bark (which includes Vitamin C). In 1747 James Lind, a British naval surgeon, conducted a study on 12 men onboard a ship suffering from a lack of Vitamin C. He discovered that citrus fruits helped the men, due to the fact that (we now know) they contain Vitamin C. Albert Szent-Györgyi was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1937 for his discovery of the actual vitamin, having isolated it in 1928. Vitamin C contributes to normal collagen formation, and supports the normal energy-yielding metabolism. It also plays a role in the normal functioning of the immune and nervous systems, and contributes to protection from oxidative stress.
Hyaluronic acid, also known as Sodium Hyaluronate, is a compound which is able to bind and retain water molecules. It is naturally found in all tissues in the body, especially in the skin, as well as the fluids in the eyes and joints. Hyaluronic acid is part of what allows the joints to move smoothly.
Vitamin E is a fat-soluble vitamin that can be found in several forms, but alpha-tocopherol is the only form that is used by the human body. Vitamin E is exclusively obtained from the diet, as our bodies are unable to produce it. It is present in a variety of foods, including plant oils (such as rapeseed, olive, sunflower and soya oils), nuts, seeds and cereals. Once absorbed, it is stored in the liver. It was discovered in 1922, by scientists Katherine Bishop and Herbert Evans. Vitamin E has antioxidant properties, as it contributes to the protection of cells from oxidative stress.
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