Quercetin is a plant pigment (flavonoid) found in many fruits, vegetables, leaves, seeds, and grains; red onions, kale, green tea, apples, berries, Ginkgo biloba and St. John's wort in particular. The name has been used since 1857, and is derived from quercetum (oak forest), after the oak genus Quercus. In the past it has been used as a medicine, often in the form of Buckwheat tea, as the drink contains a lot of Quercetin.
Vitamin C is a compound naturally found in many fruits and vegetables - particularly citrus fruits. It is included on the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines. Vitamin C has several uses. The nutrient contributes to normal collagen production for the normal function of blood vessels, and Vitamin C also increases iron absorption.
The compound’s history is notable. Indigenous Canadians used a drink created from tree bark (which includes Vitamin C) medicinally, and many other societies used citrus fruits (which we now know contain Vitamin C) medicinally as well. Albert Szent-Györgyi was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1937 for his actual discovery of Vitamin C, having isolated the vitamin from its natural sources.
Rutin is a combination of Quercetin and the sugar Rutinose, and is also a plant pigment (flavonoid) which is found in a lot of fruits - especially citrus. Its name comes from the plant ‘Ruta graveolens’, which also contains Rutin. Like Quercetin (and likely because Rutin contains Quercetin), Rutin has been used as a medicinal ingredient for centuries. The major sources of rutin for medical use include buckwheat, the Japanese pagoda tree, and eucalyptus.
Bromelain is an enzyme extract that is found in pineapples. It has been used extensively in folk medicine, and is also used in a number of cosmetics, topical medications, and meat tenderisers. The first isolation of Bromelain was recorded by the Venezuelan chemist Vicente Marcano in 1891 by fermenting the fruit of pineapple. It was investigated further in 1892 by a number of American chemists.
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